Road Collisions Responsible For Trauma

Monday, November 20, 2017 - 12:30
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One in five (20%) patients admitted to trauma centres were involved in road crashes in 2016 according to new figures obtained by Brake, the road safety charity. Road collisions were the second largest cause of trauma admissions, after falls from less than two metres.

Last year, 11,486 road users – the equivalent of 31 a day – were admitted to trauma centres in England and Wales with life-threatening injuries.

The regions with the highest proportion of road collision trauma patients were the Thames Valley (25%), North West London (23%), the West Midlands (23%), the East Midlands (22%) and East England (22%).

Brake commissioned an analysis by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN), which records information about patients admitted to trauma centres, set up to deal with the most severe injuries in England and Wales [1].

Table: Admissions to trauma centres and units following road traffic collisions, 2016

TARN network region Road collision admissions as proportion of all trauma admissions (2016) Number of road crash trauma admissions (2016)
Thames Valley 25% 554
North West London 23% 505
West Midlands 23% 1,663
East Midlands 22% 617
East of England 22% 860
North East London and Essex 22% 690
South East London, Kent and Medway 21% 640
Yorkshire and Humber 21% 1,215
Cumbria and Lancashire 20% 365
Sussex 20% 272
Hampshire, Dorset and the Isle of Wight (Wessex) 20% 609
Somerset, Bristol, Gloucestershire and Wiltshire (Severn) 19% 635
Wales 19% 341
South West London and Surrey 18% 530
Greater Manchester 17% 611
Devon and Cornwall (Peninsula) 17% 400
Merseyside and Cheshire 16% 421
North East England (Northern) 16% 558
Total 20% 11,486

Source: TARN. Note: size of population and number of trauma centres vary between regions.

Brake also analysed data covering 75,820 road crash victims admitted to trauma centres during the last decade [2]. The data reveals that young people (16-25 year olds) are the most affected age group, accounting for more than one in five (21%) road traffic trauma admissions, including the largest group of vehicle passenger (32%), motorcycle (27%) and driver (21%) admissions. In the past decade, 5,657 children (under the age of 16) were admitted to a trauma centre following a road crash, making up seven per cent of all admissions; almost a third (32%) of these were admitted with serious head injury. Children also comprise the biggest age group for pedestrian casualties, accounting for nearly one in six (17%) trauma admissions.

According to the analysis, motorcyclists comprise the largest proportion of admissions (25%), followed by drivers (23%), pedestrians (21%), cyclists (16%) and vehicle passengers (12%).

Due to the severity of many road traffic collisions, almost a quarter (24%) of trauma patients go straight to intensive care following a crash. In terms of road user type, almost a third (32%) of pedestrians, and almost a quarter (24%) of cyclists, suffer serious head injuries, while over a quarter (28%) of drivers suffer severe chest injuries. Almost two in five (39%) motorcyclists are admitted with serious injury to their arms or legs. Five per cent of all admissions in 2016 later died from the injuries sustained [2].

Recent figures from the Department for Transport reveal that exceeding the speed limit or travelling too fast for conditions contributed to 349 fatal collisions on roads in Britain last year – almost a quarter (22%) of all fatal crashes [3]. Travelling at higher speeds increases the distance it takes to stop in an emergency – both in terms of thinking and braking time – increasing the severity of any crash, the risk of loss of life and the extent of serious injury.

The analysis has been published at the start of the UK’s biggest road safety event, Road Safety Week (20-26 November), coordinated by Brake. This year, thousands of organisations, schools and community groups are backing its Speed Down Save Lives campaign, helping to raise awareness about the dangers of driving too fast.

Jason Wakeford, director of campaigns for Brake, the road safety charity, said: “Not only do needless road collisions cause untold suffering but they also place an enormous strain on the NHS and other public services.

“Speeding is a factor in many deadly crashes and remains a major problem. Driving is unpredictable and if something unexpected happens on the road ahead, such as a child stepping out from between parked cars, it’s a driver’s speed that determines whether they can stop in time and, if they can’t, how hard they will hit. That’s why we’re encouraging everyone to ‘Speed Down Save Lives’ for Road Safety Week this year.

“Brake is also calling for a default 20mph limit in all built-up areas, increased enforcement and ‘Intelligent Speed Adaptation’, which helps drivers stay within the limit, to be fitted as standard to new vehicles.”

Ben Walton, adult clinical lead for major trauma in the Severn area, hosted by North Bristol NHS Trust, said: “We know that injuries sustained following road traffic collision account for a significant proportion of seriously injured patients admitted to the Major Trauma Centre at North Bristol NHS Trust.

“Road traffic incidents have a serious, often devastating impact on individuals and their families. Even if people survive and make it to the Major Trauma Centre – where specialists work together to help treat their different injuries – the long-term outcome can still be life-changing. There are many ways in which road traffic collisions can be prevented. In particular we urge people to be mindful of the speed they are travelling.”

Lucas Bergmans, head of brand for Aviva, said: “At Aviva we’re all too familiar with the outcomes of road collisions, so we’re 100 per cent behind Brake’s Road Safety Week campaign. Travelling over speed limits can have catastrophic consequences, and these can be easily avoided. Aviva research shows that seven out of ten UK drivers admit to travelling over the speed limit from time to time, so we’d urge all motorists to pledge to keep their speed down, and help to make our roads safer.”

Stephen Wornham, managing director of BriteAngle, said: “It is unacceptable that, with vehicles getting safer and more intelligent, so many people are admitted to trauma hospitals after a road collision. This data shows that more needs to be done to ensure motorists are aware of the hazards around them, and drive accordingly.”

Brake volunteer: Nick Bennett from Cambridge

On 25 July 2002, aged just 17, Nick’s life was changed forever when he made the decision to dangerously overtake. He was on his way to work and impatiently stuck behind two cars. The sun was low, he couldn’t see properly, and yet he overtook both cars; straight into the path of a three tonne lorry. He wasn’t wearing a seatbelt. Nick spent the next two years in hospital and now lives with injuries so severe that he requires daily care.

Nick said: “As someone who has been seriously injured as a result of a road crash, I don’t want any other family to go through the same suffering I am. Breaking the speed limit means it takes longer to react and brake in the event of an emergency, increasing the chance of causing death and serious injury to yourself and others. Speeding is really dangerous and so I’m fully supporting this year’s Road Safety Week and encouraging everyone to speed down to save lives.”

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